Sunday, 25 August 2013

The effectiveness of Echinacea extract or composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements on acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rat model.

The effectiveness of Echinacea extract or composite glucosamine, chondroitin and methyl sulfonyl methane supplements on acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis rat model.
Toxicol Ind Health. 2013 Mar;29(2):187-201
Authors: Arafa NM, Hamuda HM, Melek ST, Darwish SK
Abstract
The study aimed to investigate the effect of the oral administration for 15 days of either Echinacea (E) or genuphil (a composite of chondroitin sulphate, glucosamine and methyl sulfonyl methane [GCM]) nutraceutical supplements on female rat model of acute or chronic arthritis induced by bacterial outer membrane protein (OMP) from faecal flora of healthy and rheumatic humans. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP2), C-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) values increased (p < 0.05) in both arthritic groups as compared to normal values.
The rheumatic markers anti-CCP2, CRP and RF values decreased significantly in E- and GCM-treated groups compared to arthritic none-treated acute or chronic groups. The results of RF values of GCM-treated groups in acute and chronic models decreased exhibiting no statistical difference compared with the normal value. Histological examinations of the hind paw sections revealed moderate inflammation, oedema and mild proliferation of synovial cells in acute arthritic rats and more damage to cartilage and bone with severe inflammation in chronic ones. Echinacea acute treated group showed edema with proliferated synovial membrane and partial damage in cartilage and bone. While in the E-chronic treated group, rough edge with destructed cartilage and bone existed. However, the acute GCM group revealed mild cartilage damage. But the chronic GCM group showed mild synovial cells proliferation and revealed no inflammation with mild cartilage damage edge. Results demonstrated the OMP arthropathic property and through promising light on arthritis treatment using E- or GCM, with the advantage of GMC results over that of E-. The composite GCM is needed for further studies over the dose and duration to assess its preventive effects against the bacterial OMP arthrogenicity.